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I think you are not allowed to replace the hard disk drive in the Xbox One. However, with the June system update, you can connect a USB 3.0 derive to the console to get External Hard Drive Support and store more and more apps and games locally. I followed the Best Xbox One External USB 3.0 Hard Drives recommended tips and bought one and everything works great.
You can replace your hard drive on your Xbox One but it will void the warranty. As of this week in June youc an now add an external hard drive to your Xbox one and store games on there. Couple options using a SSD vs a non SSD drive. The prices are pretty far apart but could be really beneficial to just go with the SSD right away - http://boxclash.com/best-xbox-one-hard-drives/
It was just a sata drive on Xbox 360 albeit in a case, but just like 360 MS will ban you if you upgrade it. There aren't people banning you it is just an algorithm, if things don't match up your console gets banned.
So probably like Xbox 360 they will let you upgrade if you want to buy another console later with a larger drive.
It’s not quite as easy to swap out on the XBox One as it is on the PS4, but still pretty easy. Kudos to Microsoft for changing the design this time around. As downloadabke game sizes increase (Uncharted 3 was over 40Gb, I think), it gets easier and easier to fill up a drive This really helps future-proof the XBone.
Yes you can replace the Hard drive of the xbox one, its an internal SATA-II 500gb Hard drive, Im not sure if there are any system files stored on the hard drive or not but i wouldnt expect there to be because there is an 8GB nand on the xbox's motherboard where the oprating system and its files are stored. I would actualy recomend replacing the internal hard drive with maybe a 2tb one. But this will void your warrenty. It is actualy suprisingly easy to disasemble your xbox one console with the right tools and as its mobile hardware the parts are easily removed. I would personly use a tool like CCC ( Carbon Copy Cloner ) for mac OSX to replicate the Hard drive because this will clone every spec of data for any hard drive you want and just to be sure you can place the xbox one hard drive and clone it to a 2tb hard drive and it would replicate the entire partition. Theres also a windows program that Symantic which is the company that owns Norton has.. Not sure what it is called but it does the exact same as CCC and would be very handy if you dont have an OSX computer.
Hope this answered your question.