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In your specific case - if you catch it as you did it - you can right-click on a tab and the drop down list will have an entry to reopen a closed tab (one just closed). If you have closed more than one tab, it will open the last tab closed. Repeat it and it will open the next one closed - "last-in, first-out" order. I did check my Chrome browser to see if I had any extensions for this this (just in case) and did not. From Chrome Help: http://chrome.blogspot.com/2010/02/tip-recovering-closed-tabs.html
Go to the little inverted triangle shape at the top left, beside the first tab. Left click on the inverted triangle, and about the 7th option from the top will be “reopen closed tab.” Ctrl+Shift+T will also work.
You can also go to the drop-down menu on the far right of the window, left click it, then scroll down to “Recent Tabs.” If you hover on that, it should show a list of recently closed tabs.