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While it may have some short term impact...the exchange rate for BitCoin did drop somewhat after new of the Mt. Gox breach...I doubt it will have lasting impact. There has been increasing criticism of Mt. Gox over the past year or so, as the site experienced repeated trouble, some minor and some significant. There is some thought in the BitCoin community that the disappearance of Mt. Gox is a good thing, since it was one of the weakest links in the system anyway. It also makes it clear how exchanges should NOT operate, and should actually result in a more secure BitCoin environment for the future.
There are always failures in any system. Banks have collapsed in the past, and that clearly did not result in the demise of the dollar. Of course, deposits at banks are generally insured against loss, which was not the case at Mt. Gox, but I have to believe that most of the people using Mt. Gox were aware that they were not making a zero risk investment with BitCoin.